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General Surgery


Welcome to the homepage of the General Surgery, a comprehensive reference work from Springer.

It aims to provide the medical student, general surgical resident or active practitioner with an illustrative, instructive and comprehensive reference work, depicting the rationale for the basic operative principles mandated by state-of-the-art surgical therapy.

Information and more details about the extent of this project can be found under Aims & Scope.

We welcome you and look forward to your participation in this exciting project.

Kirby I. Bland, Markus Buchler, Attila Csendes, O. James Garden, Michael G. Sarr, John Wong

(Editors in Chief)

  1. Anesthesia and Risk Management
  2. Fluids and Electrolytes
  3. Nutritional Support in the Surgical Patient
  4. Abnormal Bleeding and Coagulopathies
  5. Blood Transfusion and Alternative Therapies
  6. Circulatory Monitoring
  7. Acute Pain Management
  8. Initial Evaluation of the Trauma Patient
  9. Blunt Abdominal Trauma
  10. Penetrating Trauma: Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen
  11. Vascular Trauma: Life-threatening Thoracoabdominal Injuries and Limb-threatening Extremity Injuries
  12. Thermal Injury
  13. Closed Head Injury
  14. Spinal Trauma
  15. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome
  16. Acute Renal Failure
  17. Monitoring of Respiratory Function and Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation
  18. Coma and Altered Mental Status in the Surgical Critical Care Setting; Brain Death
  19. Management of Cardiac Arrhythmias
  20. Do Not Resuscitate, Do Not Treat
  21. Multiple Organ Dysfunction: The Systemic Host Response to Critical Surgical Illness
  22. Hepatic Failure
  23. General Principles of Sepsis
  24. Neurologic Physiology: The Brain and Its Response to Injury
  25. Pulmonary Embolism
  26. Right Ventricular Failure and Cardiogenic Shock
  27. Nosocomial Pneumonia
  28. Pericardial Tamponade
  29. Gastrointestinal Failure
  30. Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Insipidus
  31. Incidence, Etiology, Diagnosis, and Staging of Head and Neck Cancer
  32. Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Oropharynx
  33. Larynx and Hypopharynx
  34. Tumors of the Sinonasal Cavity and Anterior Skull Base
  35. Neck Metastasis and Unknown Primary Tumor
  36. Parotid and Salivary Glands
  37. Neurovascular and Soft Tissue Neoplasms of the Head and Neck
  38. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
  39. Paraesophageal Hiatus Hernia
  40. Barrett's Esophagus
  41. Achalasia: Chagas' Disease
  42. Esophageal Perforation
  43. Esophageal Diverticula
  44. Esophageal Cancer: Diagnosis and Staging
  45. Esophageal Cancer: Transhiatal Resection
  46. Transthoracic Esophagectomy
  47. Peptic Ulcer Disease and Helicobacter Pylori
  48. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Perforation
  49. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Obstruction
  50. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Hemorrhage
  51. Gastric Ulcer
  52. Postgastrectomy and Postvagotomy Syndromes
  53. Bariatric Surgery
  54. Gastric Adenocarcinoma
  55. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
  56. Gastric Lymphoma
  57. Small Bowel Obstruction
  58. Motility Disorders of the Small Bowel
  59. Appendicitis
  60. Short Bowel Syndrome
  61. Radiation and Surgery
  62. Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis
  63. Enterocutaneous Fistula
  64. Adenocarcinoma of the Small Bowel
  65. Lymphoma of the Small Bowel
  66. Carcinoid of the Small Bowel
  67. Stromal Tumors of the Small Bowel
  68. Large Bowel Obstruction
  69. Chronic Ulcerative Colitis
  70. Crohn's Disease of the Small Bowel and Colon
  71. Acute Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction
  72. Surgical Therapy of Constipation
  73. Diverticulitis
  74. Pilonidal Disease
  75. Anal Fissure and Fistula
  76. Polyposis Syndromes of the Colon
  77. Clinical Management of Patients with Fecal Incontinence
  78. Pruritus Ani
  79. Rectovaginal Fistulas
  80. Pseudomembranous Colitis
  81. Toxic Megacolon
  82. Colonic Volvulus
  83. Rectal Prolapse and Solitary Rectal Ulcer
  84. Ischemic Colitis
  85. Hemorrhoids
  86. Premalignant Polyps of the Colon and Rectum
  87. Management of Colon Cancer
  88. Appendiceal Epithelial Neoplasms and Pseudomyxoma Peritonei, a Distinct Clinical Entity with Distinct Treatments
  89. Anal Cancer
  90. Rectal Cancer: Issues for the 21st Century, a Practical Update for the Surgeon
  91. Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy for Colorectal Carcinoma
  92. Hepatitis
  93. Differential Diagnosis of the Liver Mass
  94. Benign Hepatic Neoplasms
  95. Hepatic Abscess: Current Concepts
  96. Portal Hypertension
  97. Cystic Liver Diseases
  98. Liver Transplantation for Budd-Chiari Syndrome
  99. Liver Hemangioma
  100. Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  101. Metastatic Cancer of the Liver
  102. Postcholecystectomy Syndrome
  103. Asymptomatic Gallstones
  104. Bile Duct Injury Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy
  105. Cholelithiasis
  106. Choledocholithiasis
  107. Choledochal Cysts
  108. Biliary Dyskinesia: Functional Gallbladder and Sphincter of Oddi Disorders
  109. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
  110. Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma
  111. Cancer of the Gallbladder
  112. Splenectomy
  113. Cyst and Abscess of the Spleen
  114. Malignant Diseases of the Spleen
  115. Management of Necrotizing Pancreatitis
  116. Acute Pancreatitis
  117. Chronic Pancreatitis: From endotherapy to Surgery
  118. Pancreas Divisum
  119. Pancreatic Pseudocysts
  120. Obstructive Jaundice: Preoperative Evaluation
  121. Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas
  122. Pancreatic Carcinoma
  123. Nonfunctioning Pancreatic Endocrine Tumors
  124. Femoral Hernia
  125. Inguinal Hernia
  126. Incisional Hernia Repair
  127. Uncommon Abdominal Wall Hernias
  128. Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Diagnosis and Treatment
  129. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding
  130. Obscure Overt Gastrointestinal Bleeding
  131. Laparoscopic Colectomy
  132. Laparoscopic Appendectomy
  133. Laparoscopic Small Bowel Surgery
  134. Laparoscopic Common Bile Duct Exploration
  135. Advanced Gastric and Pancreatic Laparoscopic Procedures
  136. Infections of the Pleural Cavity
  137. Lung Abscess
  138. Hemoptysis in Benign Disease
  139. Spontaneous Pneumothorax and Lung Volume Reduction Surgery
  140. The Thymus
  141. Mediastinal Masses
  142. Neonatal Bowel Obstruction
  143. Anomalies of Bowel Rotation: malrotation and Midgut Volvulus
  144. Abdominal Wall Defects: omphalocele and Gastroschisis
  145. Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis
  146. Intussusception
  147. Meckel's Diverticulum
  148. Benign Breast Disease: Diagnosis and Assessment
  149. Malignant Breast Disease: Diagnosis and Assessment
  150. High Risk Indicators: Microscopic Lesions, Personal and Family History, Assessment, and Management
  151. Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast: Ductal and Lobular Origin
  152. Breast Carcinoma: Stages I and II
  153. Locally Advanced Breast Cancer
  154. Metastatic Carcinomas of the Breast
  155. Reconstruction of the Breast
  156. Evaluation of Malignant and Premalignant Skin Lesions
  157. Staging and Treatment Options for Cutaneous Melanoma
  158. Technique and Application of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Melanoma
  159. Surgical Treatment of Malignant Melanoma
  160. Surgical and Medical Management of Locally Advanced and Systemic Melanoma
  161. Soft Tissue Sarcomas of the Extremities and Chest Wall
  162. Goiter and Nontoxic Benign Thyroid Conditions
  163. Papillary Thyroid Cancer
  164. Follicular, Hürthle Cell, and Anaplastic Thyroid Cancers
  165. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma
  166. Hyperparathyroidism: Primary and Secondary
  167. Functioning and Non-functioning Adrenal Tumors
  168. Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Pancreas
  169. Carcinoid Neoplasms
  170. Surgical Management of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  171. Endometriosis
  172. Ovarian (Adnexal) Neoplasm, Benign
  173. Malignant Ovarian Neoplasms
  174. Endometrial Cancer
  175. Cervical Cancer
  176. Cerebrovascular Disease
  177. Thoracic, Abdominal, and Peripheral Aneurysmal Disease
  178. Diagnosis and Management of Chronic Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease
  179. Visceral Artery Occlusive Disease (Mesenteric Occlusive Disease)
  180. Acute Arterial Occlusions
  181. Venous and Lymphatic Disease
  182. Vascular Access for Hemodialysis
  183. The Diabetic Foot: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Standards of Care
  184. Amputation: Current Concepts
  185. Embolic Disease and Vena Cava Filters
  186. Complications of Vascular Surgery: Infected Vascular Grafts, Aortoenteric Fistula, and Pseudoaneurysms
  187. The Endovascular Management of Iliac Disease
  188. Endovascular Management of Carotid Disease
  189. Surgical Considerations in the Elderly
  190. Intra-abdominal Transplantation: Principles for the General Surgeon
  191. Urologic Principles for the General Surgeon
  192. Tropical Medicine for the General Surgeon
  193. HIV and the General Surgeon