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Shield Bearer Moths (Lepidoptera: Heliozelidae)

Shield bearer moths, family Heliozelidae, total 106 species from all regions, with more than half the species split between North America (31 sp.) and Australia (36 sp.); actual fauna probably exceeds 200 species. The family is in the superfamily Incurvarioidea, in the section Incurvariina, of division Monotrysia, infraorder Heteroneura. Adults minute to small (3-9 mm wingspan), with very smooth head scaling (one sp. has roughened head scales in the Neotropics); haustellum scaled and scales usually merging with head scaling to form a triangular-appearing face; labial palpi porrect; maxillary palpi minute, 5-segmented. Maculation usually dark with shining metallic- iridescence, plus some light markings. Adults are diurnal. Larvae make serpentine leaf