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Quartiles are location measures of a distribution of observations. Quartiles separate a distribution into four parts. Thus there are three quartiles for a given distribution. Between each quartile we find 25% of the total observations:
Note that the second quartile equals the median.
Calculation of the quartile is similar to that of the median. When we have all the observations, quartiles are calculated as follows:
- The n observations must be arranged in the form of a frequency distribution.
- Quartiles correspond to observations for which the relative cumulated frequency exceeds 25%, 50%, and 75%. Certain authors propose the following formula, which allows to determine with precision the value of different quartiles: Computation of jth quartile:Let i be the integer part of and k the fraction part of .Let x i and x i + 1 be the values of the observations respectively in the