This is the free portion of the full article. The full article is available to licensed users only.
How do I get access?

Enuresis and Encopresis


In this chapter, we describe the assessment and treatment of enuresis and encopresis. We first review literature on the symptoms, causes, and evidence-based treatments of each condition separately. We also incorporate a discussion of the mechanisms of change underlying effective intervention. Then, using Ryle's (1949) distinction between "knowing how" and "knowing that" as a framework, we discuss the basic competencies one should possess to address these clinical issues. A major reason for distinguishing between the "knowing how" and "knowing that" skill sets is that some clinicians teach and others practice. Based on this framework, we argue that demonstration of basic competency entails the clinician having the skills to conduct effective assessment and treatment of enuresis and/or encopresis, or the skills necessary to tell others (e.g., supervisees) how to do so. These skills include a thorough knowledge of the physiology of urination and defecation,