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This chapter summarizes the literature on assessment, maintenance, treatment, and mechanisms of change in treatment of patients with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. Relevant theoretical contributions which are discussed may help to understand the genesis and maintenance factors of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Further, we provide an overview of empirically supported treatment approaches for these disorders and discuss the mechanisms of change involved in these treatments Knowledge of the burgeoning literature in this area is relevant for the development of basic and expert clinical competencies in panic disorder/agoraphobia. It is argued that the clinician should first be familiar with the diagnostic criteria for panic disorder and for agoraphobia. Knowledge of structured clinical interviews is needed to be able to formalize the diagnosis. In addition, knowledge of self-report measures, behavioral assessment, and self-monitoring is needed to assess