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Clinical psychologists must develop a specific set of competencies in the area of psychometrics and measurement theory in order to be successful professionals. The competency models put forth by professional organizations within psychology have provided the framework for identifying the broader foundational and functional competencies that pertain to the field of psychometrics, specifically assessment, and research and evaluation. As producers and consumers of research, clinical psychologists must have a firm understanding of measurement development and the ability to interpret and summarize information obtained from various types of assessment tools. Thus, the main focus of this chapter is to describe the application of psychometric concepts in clinical endeavors. Central to this discussion are psychometric concepts such as, scales of measurement, reliability and validity of psychological instruments, and approaches to test theory. Both basic and expert competencies