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Messianic Judaism is the religion of Jewish people who believe in Jesus (Yeshua) as the promised Messiah. It is a Jewish form of Christianity and a Christian form of Judaism, challenging the boundaries and beliefs of both (Boyarin 2004). The Messianic Jewish Movement refers to the contemporary movement, a renewed expression of the Jewish Christianity of the early church. Messianic Jews construct a new social and religious identity that they express communally in Messianic Jewish Congregations and Synagogues, and in their individual beliefs and practices. Since the early 1970s, significant numbers of Jewish people now believe in Jesus and identify as Messianic Jews. Their beliefs and practices raise important questions and challenge traditional understandings of Judaism and Christianity (Cohn-Sherbok 2000).