> > Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

This is the free portion of the full article. The full article is available to licensed users only.
How do I get access?

Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

Overview

This essay delineates the main characteristics of internalizing and externalizing problems. Internalizing problems are described as inner-directed and generating distress in the individual, while externalizing problems are described as outer-directed and generating discomfort and conflict in the surrounding environment. Also examined are the influences of developmental changes as well as gender and cross-cultural differences on these dimensions during adolescence. Finally, these dimensions are related to personality traits and coping strategies, in this regard common and specific relations are pointed out.

Characterization of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

Adolescent maladjustment has been frequently dichotomized into two syndromes referred to as internalizing and externalizing problems. In the 1960s, Achenbach and colleagues, a paradigmatic research group on adolescence psychopathology, proposed an original taxonomy, empirically