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Human Resource Development and Performance Improvement



Human resource development (HRD) has been famously defined as "the integrated use of training and development, organization development, and career development to improve individual, group, and organizational effectiveness" (McLagan 1989, p. 7). Human performance improvement (HPI) is usually understood to mean "the systematic process of discovering and analyzing important human performance gaps, planning for future improvement in human performance, designing and developing cost-effective and ethically justifiable interventions to close performance gaps, implementing the interventions, and evaluating the financial and nonfinancial results" (Rothwell 2000, p. 89). But "the total performance improvement