This is the free portion of the full article. The full article is available to licensed users only.
How do I get access?

Cognitive Efficiency



Cognitive efficiency (CE) is a multifaceted construct that describes the ability to reach learning, problem solving, or instructional goals through optimal use of mental resources. CE can be defined as optimal effort needed to perform a task, optimal performance on a task, or as the relationship between maximum performances on a task while exerting minimum effort (Hoffman and Schraw 2010).

In general, all views construe CE as the tradeoff between benefits such as increases in the rate, amount, or conceptual clarity of knowledge versus costs such as time, effort, or the cognitive resources expended to complete a task. Three main criteria influence the understanding and utility of CE: the discipline of application, measurement of the construct, and individual differences among learners.

Theoretical Background

Beginning in the late nineteenth century, experimental and behavioral