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Neurophenomenology

Introduction

Laughlin, d’Aquili & McManus (1990) and Francisco Varela (1996) were the first to use the term neurophenomenology. Varela (1995;1996), Evan Thompson (2007) and Humberto Maturana (1980) are perhaps best known for advancing neurophenomenology as a critical theory in relation to neuroscience because they stressed the liberation of human experiences from the reductionism found in conventional neuroscience (Maturana & Varela, 1980; Maturana & Varela, 1996; Thompson, Lutz & Cosmelli, 2005; Thompson, 2007; Varela & Thompson, 2003). Therefore, neurophenomenology can be considered part of a critical psychology that promotes an ethical advocacy for non-deterministic accounts of psychological selves and human agency (Prilleltensky & Fox, 1997). 

Primarily, neurophenomenology has become associated with Francisco Varela, and he lived the very nature of the methodology he promulgated. Varela was a Buddhist, and knowledgeable of Eastern philosophy. Such knowledge seemed