This is the free portion of the full article. The full article is available to licensed users only.
How do I get access?

Environment and Environmentalism

Einstein is reported to have defined environment as 'everything that isn't me'. This aphorism symbolizes one feature of the environmental dilemma. Unlike any other living creature, humans can view the natural world as if they were separate from it. Toynbee (1976) remarked that humans have rational minds and emotional souls. They can order ideas and rank feelings. They can care passionately about salvation and fear for what they bequeath to their offspring. They can over-slaughter bison yet create a lasting international Antarctic sanctuary for whales.

'Environment' is a metaphor for the enduring contradictions in the human condition: the power of domination yet the obligation of responsibility; the drive for betterment tempered by the sensitivity of humility; the manipulation of nature to improve the chances of survival yet the universal appeal of sustainable development; the individualism of consumerism and the social solidarity of global citizenship.