This is the free portion of the full article. The full article is available to licensed users only.
How do I get access?

Token Economies



Token economies are based on learning principles derived from operant psychology, specifically secondary positive reinforcement, and have the objective of increasing and supporting desirable child behaviors.


A token is any inanimate object such as a coin, mark on a piece of paper, ticket, or sticker. By themselves, tokens do not have intrinsic value. However, when paired (conditioned) with pleasurable consequences, tokens acquire reinforcing properties. For example, parents might give their 10-year-old son poker chips each time he completes assigned household chores. By allowing the child to exchange his earned poker chips for favorite objects and activities (e.g., watching television, purchasing a toy), the poker chips will function as positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is defined as a consequence following behavior which increases the future probability