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Calcification, Intracranial, Neonatal

Synonym

TORCH infections

Definition

Pathological calcification of the newborn brain is detected on plain radiography or CT examination. The numerous causes include perinatal toxoplasmosis, others i.e. HIV, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes (TORCH) infections, metabolic abnormalities, vascular disease, brain infarction, tumours and neurophakomatoses.

Pathology/Histopathology

The pathology in neonatal intracranial calcification varies with the underlying cause.

Each one is discussed in more detail elsewhere in this section.

Clinical Presentation

Some infants with congenital infection, in particular cytomegalovirus present with a small head circumference and infants with toxoplasmosis may have hydrocephalus ( 1) All these infections are generalised infections and the infants may have skin rashes and haemorrhages, hepatosplenomegaly, chorioretinitis and pneumonitis.

The diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis depends on detecting the characteristic