Featured Article Archive

Invention and Innovation as Creative Problem-Solving Activities

(2014-05-01 - 2014-05-31)

Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

"Problem solving" is the process of finding out a sequence of states between the initial and the desired final state under the given constraints. This process is based on a "mental representation, a mental scheme for holding information in memory and operating on it" (Simon 1999, p. 674; Newell and Simon 1972).

 Image: www.FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Image-Guided Surgery in Breast Cancer

(2014-05-01 - 2014-05-30)

Image-Guided Cancer Therapy

This chapter gives a brief overview of the historical management of breast cancer and describes the modern imaging techniques of the breast and axilla, including digital mammography, ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission mammography.

Evolution of In-Car Navigation Systems

(2014-04-01 - 2014-04-30)

Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

In-car navigation systems do not consist of only navigation functions that are combinations of GPS and Map. Present in-car navigation systems are an integrated system that mainly consists of navigation function, Audio and Video function, and communication function.

Diabetes Mellitus

(2013-11-14 - 2013-12-21)

Textbook of Clinical Pediatrics

The article provides detailed information on Diabetes Mellitus, a metabolic condition characterized by elevated concentrations of blood glucose (sugar). Read about its symptoms, causes, treatment and more.

Image: www.FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Applications of Computational Methods to Simulations of Proteins Dynamics

(2013-10-12 - 2013-11-04)

Handbook of Computational Chemistry

The article presents the fast-growing field of computer simulations of protein dynamics. It describes principles of currently used computational methods along with examples of recent advanced applications, in particular protein folding studies, protein-drug interactions, transport phenomena, ion channels activity, molecular machines mechanics, origins of molecular diseases, and simulations of single molecule AFM experiments.

Molecular Regulation of Synaptic Release

(2013-10-09 - 2013-10-31)

Neuroscience in the 21st Century

This article describes how the Synaptic Vesicle Cycle governs the release of neurotransmitter.

Synaptic transmission at chemical synapses is mediated by the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic axonal specializations that either are interspersed along terminal axonal branches or demarcate the end point of axonal arborization (nerve terminals). 

Sustainable Design by Systematic Innovation Tools (TRIZ, CAI, SI, and Biomimetics)

(2013-08-12 - 2013-08-31)

Handbook of Sustainable Engineering

 

The chapter introduces innovation methods such as TRIZ, CAI, SI, and biomimetrics. It shows how innovation methodologies can produce meaningful progress in ecodesign by combining sustainability with the traditional design techniques.

General Care of the Newborn

(2013-07-31 - 2013-08-15)

Textbook of Clinical Pediatrics

Each newborn has their unique physical features and personalities from day 1. A few things are common to newborns of all types, shapes, and sizes but there are a lot of natural variations and findings of interest. This chapter serves as a guide in the general medical care of these young patients.

Breast-Feeding

(2013-08-01 - 2013-08-07)

Encyclopedia of Women's Health

World Breastfeeding Week (1-7th August, 2013)

Human breast milk is now widely acknowledged to be the most complete form of nutrition for infants, with a range of physiological and psychological benefits for both the infant and mother. Through the ages, humans have been dependent on it for its sustenance and even contraceptive attributes.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Natural Disasters and Evacuations as a Communication and Social Phenomenon

(2013-06-28 - 2013-07-30)

Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

This article intends to show how system and complexity science can contribute to an understanding and improvement of evacuation processes, especially considering the roles of engaged communities at risk, the concepts of community self-help, and clear communication about local threats and remedies.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Air Pollution Climatology

(2013-06-25 - 2013-07-10)

Encyclopedia of World Climatology

Air pollution is defined as an atmospheric condition in which substances (air pollutants) are present at concentrations higher than their normal ambient (clean atmosphere) levels to produce measurable adverse effects on humans, animals, vegetation, or materials.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Stratosphere

(2013-06-18 - 2013-06-27)

Climatology

The region of the atmosphere lying directly above the troposphere is called the stratosphere. It was discovered in 1902 by the French meteorologist Teisserenc de Bort and the German meteorologist Assmann.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Waste-to-Energy for District Heating

(2013-05-01 - 2013-06-16)

Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

This article deals with energy recovery in waste-fired boilers, using the Rankine steam cycle for electricity production; and also examines methods of producing district heat or process steam that allow combined heat and power production.

Atmospheres of Jovian Planets

(2013-04-16 - 2013-05-06)

Planets, Stars and Stellar Systems

The giant planets of the solar system have been studied for centuries using a wide range of remote sensing and in situ techniques. An understanding of the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune has dramatically improved since the dawn of spacecraft exploration of the outer solar system in the 1970s.

Space Telecommunications Services and Applications

(2013-04-16 - 2013-04-30)

Handbook of Satellite Applications

The article examines the ever increasing number of services and applications that are now provided by the commercial satellite industry. It explains that basic types of satellite services as defined by the ITU for the purpose of radio frequency allocations - particularly the Broadcast Satellite Service, Fixed Satellite Service, and the Mobile Satellite Service.

Offshore Wind Power

(2013-03-16 - 2013-04-15)

Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Offshore wind power is defined as construction of wind farms, located in the water, generating electricity from wind. The article gives in-depth information on its importance, necessary external conditions, environmental impact, technology and future directions.

Wavelets and PDE Techniques in Image Processing

(2013-03-16 - 2013-03-31)

Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

Visualization is one of the most direct and preferable ways to observe information carried by data, which are often massive in size and uncertain in data quality. To better reveal the information, especially when it is hidden, implicit, or corrupted, data must first be properly processed. The article gives a quick tour of wavelets and PDE techniques in image processing.

Displays in the Workplace

(2013-02-01 - 2013-02-28)

Handbook of Visual Display Technology

The way in which we use displays in the workplace is changing, with increasing diversity in display type, tasks, and context of use. The article outlines five challenges that we need to consider when designing and implementing displays in the workplace.

EUMETSAT Geostationary Meteorological Satellite Programs

(2013-02-01 - 2013-02-28)

Handbook of Satellite Applications

EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, operates a range of satellite programs, among them the Meteosat series of geostationary satellites which has provided continuity of coverage over Europe and Africa since 1977.

Mumford and Shah Model and its Applications to Image Segmentation and Image Restoration

(2013-02-15 - 2013-02-28)

Handbook of Mathematical Methods in Imaging

The article presents an overview of the Mumford and Shah model for image segmentation. It discuss its various formulations, properties, the mathematical framework, and several approximations. Also presented are numerical algorithms and segmentation results using the Ambrosio-Tortorelli phase-field approximations and the level set formulations.

Numerical Methods and Applications in Total Variation Image Restoration

(2013-02-15 - 2013-02-28)

Handbook of Mathematical Methods in Imaging

Since their introduction in a classic paper by Rudin, Osher, and Fatemi [51], total variation minimizing models have become one of the most popular and successful methodologies for image restoration. New developments continue to expand the capability of the basic method in various aspects.This article reviews some of these recent developments.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Mars

(2013-01-01 - 2013-01-31)

Encyclopedia of Planetary Science

Telescopic observations of Mars during the 18th and 19th centuries revealed that Mars had an atmosphere, exhibited clouds, had bright polar caps and dark surface markings, rotated in just over 24 h and went through four seasons, all properties similar to the Earth.

Symbiosis

(2013-01-23 - 2013-01-23)

Encyclopedia of Geobiology

Symbiosis structures and influences many aspects of life on Earth. It is an important driving force in evolution, and it impacts not only the biology and ecology of organisms but also the biogeochemical processes of global importance.

Origin of Life

(2013-01-09 - 2013-01-16)

Encyclopedia of Geobiology

Life exploits free energy potentials to produce effluent at much reduced value. Put another way, it takes a low entropy feed, transforming it to high entropy waste. At the root or origin of the evolutionary tree as well as at the base of the food chain, life essentially draws down carbon dioxide by reducing it with hydrogen from a variety of sources, aided by a diversity of other aqueous solutes.

Leukemia Diagnostics

(2012-12-20 - 2013-01-14)

Encyclopedia of Cancer

Leukemia diagnostics comprises the combined application of different methodologies in a standardized fashion, allowing the precise diagnosis, subclassification, and determination of prognostic parameters.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Internet Addiction

(2012-11-23 - 2012-12-07)

Neuroscience in the 21st Century

The Internet has become a basic tool for trading, entertainment, communication, as well as education in the contemporary world. Nevertheless, despite the high speed of information flow and potential educational value of the Internet, there are several attributes of the Internet which may foster addictive behavior.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Semantic Web

(2012-11-29 - 2012-12-06)

Handbook of Semantic Web Technologies

After about a decade of dedicated Semantic Web research, we are now entering a new phase for the technology. In short, it can now be claimed that the Semantic Web has arrived. Read more in the full article...

G-protein-coupled Receptors

(2012-10-11 - 2012-11-30)

Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology

Brian K. Kobilka, 2012 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry, explains G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs).

GPCRs are a large family of plasma membrane receptors. Upon binding its agonist, a GPCR activates an intracellular heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (G protein). The activated G protein modulates the activity of one or more enzymes or ion channels.

Hurricanes

(2012-10-31 - 2012-11-15)

Climatology

As Hurricane Sandy marches north along the American coast this article provides interesting background information on the genesis, structure and other characteristics of a typical hurricane.

Drowsy Driver Detection

(2012-10-01 - 2012-10-31)

Handbook of Intelligent Vehicles

Statistics show that a leading cause for fatal or injury-causing traffic accidents is due to drivers with a diminished vigilance level. This article describes a computer vision system to track various facial behaviors which can be used to monitor the driver fatigue.

Receptors: Binding Assays

(2012-10-11 - 2012-10-30)

Encyclopedia of Psychopharmacology

Receptor binding refers to a technique in which a labeled compound, a ligand, which binds to a receptor, is used to detect that receptor. Usually, the ligand is labeled by means of a radioactive isotope, such as 3H, 125I, 35S, etc., but a fluorescent moiety is also possible.

Spatial Econometric Models, Prediction

(2012-10-05 - 2012-10-11)

Encyclopedia of GIS

Prediction of ex-sample spatially dependent dependent variables not only uses ex-sample independent variables in conjunction with sample estimates of the associated parameters, but also uses the sample residuals and the spatial relations between the sample observations and the ex-sample observations to produce Best Linear Unbiased Predictions (BLUP).

Water

(2012-09-02 - 2012-09-11)

Encyclopedia of Global Justice

Water is vital to life; human beings can survive several weeks without food, but only several days without water. All humans begin life in the fluids of the amniotic sac, and our species seems to have originated in the fluids of the primordial soup.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Apollo Missions

(2012-08-30 - 2012-09-10)

Encyclopedia of Planetary Science

The objective of the Apollo program was to accomplish the first manned exploration of Earth's Moon. The program was mounted by the United States of America during the 1960s and early 1970s, in a context of competition between the United States and the Soviet Union (the' space race').

Overtraining Syndrome

(2012-08-01 - 2012-08-24)

Encyclopedia of Exercise Medicine in Health and Disease

An accumulation of training and/or nontraining stress resulting in long-term decrement in performance capacity with or without related physiological and psychological signs and symptoms of maladaptation in which restoration of performance capacity may take several weeks or months.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Mars

(2012-08-13 - 2012-08-24)

Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and one of the terrestrial planets. It differentiated within a few tens of millions years after the formation of the Solar System into a core, mantle, and crust.

Sustainable development

(2012-07-18 - 2012-08-05)

Encyclopedia of Public Health

Sustainable development is defined in the WHO Health Promotion Glossary as the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Recycling Technologies

(2012-06-19 - 2012-06-26)

Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Recycling technologies can be defined as the whole of procedures designed to set up physical-chemical actions, at an industrial scale, that perform the recovery of materials and end-use products resulting from the collection of household or industrial wastes.

Passive Solar Heating

(2012-06-20 - 2012-06-26)

Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

Buildings that consume less fossil fuel are “nice to have” today, but will be essential in the future. Since buildings are long-term investments, they must be built or rebuilt looking to the future. Read more about passive solar heating in the full article.

Neglect Syndrome

(2012-06-05 - 2012-06-20)

Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Patients with neglect syndrome act as if portions of their world do not exist. In addition to spatial neglect, they may appear unconcerned about their hemi-paresis and even deny ownership of a limb on the neglected side of their body. Not surprisingly, neglect has and continues to inspire ideas about how humans perceive, attend, and respond to their world. The figure shows left neglect on a clock drawing test.

Geomagnetic Field: Satellite Data

(2012-06-05 - 2012-06-19)

Handbook of Geomathematics

The possibility to measure the Earth's magnetic field from space has revolutionized geomagnetic field modeling. The figure shows the ground track of one day of the Ørsted and CHAMP satellites.

Colon Cancer Experimental Therapy

(2012-05-22 - 2012-06-05)

Encyclopedia of Cancer

 

The search for new and alternative therapies is the engine that powers most of the medical and biomedical research worldwide. Experimental therapies like the ones described here for colon cancer are intended to improve, supplement or in the long run even replace conventional therapies.

 

Sorafenib

(2012-05-22 - 2012-06-05)

Encyclopedia of Cancer

Sorafenib, a therapeutic drug, has been proven to improve the overall survival rate of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and those with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Sorafenib is a multi-kinase inhibitor that targets various enzymes such as Raf serine/threonine kinases, PDGFR, VEGFR-1/2, c-Kit and Flt-3.

Extreme Value Theory

(2012-05-16 - 2012-05-22)

International Encyclopedia of Statistical Science

Extreme Value Theory (EVT) is the theory of modelling and measuring events which occur with very small probability. One of the pioneer scientists in its practical applications, Emil Gumbel, applied EVT on real world problems such as annual flood flows: "It seems that the rivers know the theory. It only remains to convince the engineers ..."

Oregon's Coast

(2012-05-16 - 2012-05-22)

Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms

Sea cliff erosion and property losses affect hundreds of km of the Oregon coast. The Pleistocene terrace sands (former beaches and dunes), together with the ­underlying Tertiary mudstones and siltstones, are being eroded by the waves, forming sea cliffs that back sand beaches. Many of Oregon's coastal communities are situated on this nearly level terrace; cities such as Cannon Beach, Lincoln City and Newport have suffered property losses as the cliffs progressively retreated.

Large-scale Object-based Multimedia Storage Systems (LOMSS)

(2012-05-09 - 2012-05-16)

Encyclopedia of Multimedia

Large-Scale Object-Based Multimedia Storage Systems (LOMSS) is a new, but promising, growing, and challenging domain. An excellent design of LOMSS must consider flexibility, availability, security, and scalability. A modern day LOMSS also considers the energy consumption of the system, since storage devices contribute for around 27% of the total energy consumed by a data centre.

Human and Animal Vision

(2012-05-09 - 2012-05-16)

Machine Vision Handbook

We must never make the mistake of thinking that only we see the world as it really is. We are only sensitive to a narrow range of optical wavelengths. We cannot sense polarisation, whereas bees and appropriately designed machines can. We cannot sense very low light levels that some animals have to use. Read more about human and animal vision and its application to artificial vision in the full article...

History of Geomathematics: Navigation on Sea

(2012-05-02 - 2012-05-09)

Handbook of Geomathematics

Around 1600, inspired by the rapid advancement of knowledge on one side and of the English fleet on the other, english scientists began to construct magnetic instruments to measure the degree of latitude. Being a tragic episode in the history of seafaring, it is however a highlight in the history of geomathematics...

Inspecting Glass Bottles and Jars

(2012-05-02 - 2012-05-09)

Machine Vision Handbook

Many of the faults that occur in glassware can only be detected properly by optical means. However, a modern manufacturing line produces bottles at a speed that exceeds a human being’s ability to inspect them reliably. This article highlights the potential for applying Machine Vision, even in an area, such as this where the product is often difficult to illuminate and view...

Variational methods in shape analysis

(2012-04-25 - 2012-05-02)

Handbook of Mathematical Methods in Imaging

This article considers shapes given as boundaries of objects, which consist either of a viscous fluid or an elastic solid. View the full article to see the different results of the variational methods applied.

From Wiring Together to Firing Together: The Marvelous Neuron

(2012-04-25 - 2012-05-02)

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

The astonishing structural and functional traits of the human brain have eluded many intriguing minds for centuries - and yet our understanding of even the very basic neuronal elements, such as the synapse, remains pedestrian. Notwithstanding tremendous efforts by the neuroscience community over the decades, the sheer numbers of brain cells (tens of billions) and the intricate nature of their connectivity continue to offer formidable challenges.

Innovation and Learning Facilitated by Play

(2012-04-18 - 2012-04-25)

Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

To be playful means to be open-minded and able to construct and rearrange knowledge. This state of mind is essential when children are learning but also when people are innovating or learning from their experiences. Reaching the state of playfulness is generally easier if some element of physical artifact is involved...

Image: Lisa McDonald / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Kilimanjaro

(2012-04-18 - 2012-04-25)

Encyclopedia of Snow Ice and Glaciers

Kilimanjaro is a massive, dormant volcano in Tanzania, built up of both lava flows and pyroclastic material, situated roughly equidistant (∼300 km) south of the Equator and west of the Indian Ocean. At the seasonally snow-covered summit, the extent of glacier ice is now less than 2 km2, all remnants of a once larger ice cap.

Andosols

(2012-04-10 - 2012-04-18)

Encyclopedia of Soil Science

Andosols are soils of active volcanic areas. They exhibit unique soil properties that place them apart from other soils. The term 'andosol' is derived from Japanese, 'an' meaning dark, and 'do' connotating soil. Read more in this excellent featured article of the week.

Neurodegeneration

(2012-04-10 - 2012-04-18)

Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology

The degeneration of neurons is a natural process from the embryonic to the adult nervous system. However, since the body's ability to replace lost neurons ( via neurogenesis) is quite limited when compared to many non-neuronal cells, pathological degenerative processes affecting neurons can be quite devastating leading to severe diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

Transgenic Mouse

(2012-03-27 - 2012-04-10)

Encyclopedia of Cancer

 

The transgenic mouse is one of the most frequently used animal models in biological and biomedical research. Transgenic mice have been used to disrupt or alternate single genes to study the effects on the organism or its development. Nowadays scientists refined the techniques to produce mice with fluorescent markers like the Green Fluorescent Protein, GFP (see image). Due to these biological markers scientist are able to observe the distribution of proteins on both the animal and the cellular level.

Headache

(2012-03-27 - 2012-04-10)

Encyclopedia of Pain

Headache is one of the most widespread diseases in the industrial nations. Read in this summary about the variety of types, their characteristics and their diagnosis. However, for the most common types of headache, the actual causes are not known.

Image: Ambro / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

 

 

 

Geographic Information Systems

(2012-03-20 - 2012-03-27)

Encyclopedia of Database Systems

GISs are used in a wide range of applications, from the management of the distributed assets of utility companies to emergency response. Their scientific applications are found in any discipline that deals with phenomena distributed over the surface of the Earth, from ecology to criminology. Also the general public is increasingly familiar with GIS technology, in the form of map-making sites based on Google Maps, wayfinding sites such as MapQuest, and hotel-finding sites such as Expedia.

Escherichia coli

(2012-03-20 - 2012-03-27)

The Prokaryotes

 

 

The most famous model organism in biology has been described a thousand times already, from a thousand different perspectives. Here, in this review the authors focus on the physiological behavior of the bacterium under different levels of pressure.

Suffix Tree Construction in Hierarchical Memory

(2012-03-13 - 2012-03-20)

Encyclopedia of Algorithms

The suffix tree is the ubiquitous data structure of combinatorial pattern matching because of its elegant uses in a myriad of situations--just to cite a few, searching, data compression and mining, bioinformatics. The large data sets now available involve the use of numerous memory levels. The power of this memory organization is that it may be able to offer the expected access time of the fastest level while keeping the average cost per memory cell near the one of the cheapest level.

High Definition Live Streaming

(2012-03-13 - 2012-03-20)

Encyclopedia of Multimedia

Many applications can benefit from HD live video streaming technology: e.g. Video conferencing has become a common business tool, often replacing traditional face-to-face meetings. The user experience is very much dependent on the quality of the video and audio presented. Ideally, the technology should "disappear" and give way to natural interactions. HD video conferencing can aid in this goal. For example, users can be portrayed in life-size which helps to create the effect of a "window" between the conferencing locations. In addition, non-verbal cues, which are important to human interactions, can be communicated via these high-resolution environments.

Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

(2012-03-06 - 2012-03-13)

Soft Matter Characterization

 

Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is one of the many different modes of high-resolution spatial and temporal analysis of extremely low concentrated biomolecules. It is - together with other confocal fluorescence readout techniques - one of the standard tools used for high-throughput screening, combining very short data acquisition times with straightforward analysis. Definitely a Soft Matter Characterization must read!

 

Ethnobotany of the Incas

(2012-03-06 - 2012-03-13)

Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures

The conquest of America resulted in a considerable enrichment of the number of plants that could be used by Europeans in medicine and nutrition, as for example the potato, maize, beans, cacao, chili pepper, or quinine. All these plants were widely used by the pre‐Columbian peoples, among which were the Incas.

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

(2012-02-28 - 2012-03-06)

Pediatric Nephrology

 

HUS is characterized as the triad of clinical features: microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and renal impairment. Recent incidences of HUS syndrome following the EHEC infection caused several fatal casualties in Germany and Europe. This article demonstrates not only E. coli can induce HUS and it elucidates the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis.

Bacterial Toxins

(2012-02-28 - 2012-03-06)

The Prokaryotes

Bacterial Toxins are of high topical interest, not only as the  pathogens causing EHEC infection, which is currently keeping Germany's public health authorities busy.

Renaming

(2012-02-21 - 2012-02-28)

Encyclopedia of Algorithms

The renaming problem is a key tool for understanding the power of various asynchronous models of computation. The figure shows the output complex for the three-process renaming task using four names.

Amplification

(2012-02-21 - 2012-02-28)

Encyclopedia of Cancer

Amplification is the selective increase of DNA copy number either intracellularly, as a local genomic change, or experimentally, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplified DNA can be visualized cytogenetically as a homogeneously staining region within chromosomes (HSR).

Peristaltic Pumps

(2012-02-14 - 2012-02-21)

Encyclopedia of Microfluidics and Nanofluidics

Peristaltic pumps emulate the biological process of peristalsis, in which material is moved through the esophagus or other anatomical passage by the contraction of smooth muscle in rhythmic waves. Learn more in this comprehensive overview of Berg and Dallas.

Probabilistic Data Forwarding in Wireless Sensor Networks

(2012-02-14 - 2012-02-21)

Encyclopedia of Algorithms

Sensor networks have several important applications, including security (like biological and chemical attack detection), environmental applications (such as fire detection, flood detection, precision agriculture),  etc. An important problem in wireless sensor networks is the local sensing of a crucial event and the energy and time efficient propagation of data to a control center.

Anthropomorphism

(2012-02-07 - 2012-02-14)

Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

Anthropomorphism is the portrayal of the gods and spiritual powers beyond and in the world as having human appearance and qualities. It critically reverses the saying that "humans were made in the image of God" to "the gods were made in the images of humans."

Disaster Aftermath

(2012-02-07 - 2012-02-14)

Encyclopedia of Public Health

To minimize the negative consequences of disasters like tsunamis or earthquakes and to prevent a humanitarian disaster, aid agencies and governments have to take the correct and precise measures. Also prevention and training are crucial to help the general public to overcome these emergency situations.

Time in Philosophical Logic

(2012-01-31 - 2012-02-07)

Encyclopedia of Database Systems

The introduction of time into logic has led to the development of formal systems, which are particularly well suited to represent and study temporal phenomena such as program execution, temporal databases, and argumentation in natural language. Read this interdisciplinary highlight article now.

Telomerase

(2012-01-31 - 2012-02-07)

Encyclopedia of Cancer

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme complex (a cellular reverse transcriptase) that maintains chromosome ends and has been referred to as a cellular immortalizing enzyme.

Acid Sensing Ion Channels

(2012-01-25 - 2012-01-31)

Encyclopedia of Pain

Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) are involved in tissue acidosis which occurs during inflammation or ischemia, and is a major source of pain. Here, Voilley and Lazdunski describe the assembly and electrophysiological characteristics of these ion channels.

Astrology of Mandalas

(2012-01-25 - 2012-01-31)

Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

"Mandala" is the Sanskrit word for circle. The basic structure of a mandala is extremely simple. It is a circle. The circle encloses a sacred space, thought to include both the circumference and the center. When you see it on a page, it creates an inner and an outer space.

Pedestrian, Crowd and Evacuation Dynamics

(2012-01-17 - 2012-01-25)

Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

Pedestrian interactions can be well quantified by video tracking. Compared to other social interactions they turn out to be quite simple. Nevertheless, they cause a surprisingly large variety of self‐organized patterns and short-lived social phenomena, where coordination or cooperation emerges spontaneously.

Naive Learning in Networks

(2012-01-17 - 2012-01-25)

Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning

A dynamic approach where decision makers do not find the “correct” choice instantly but, instead, adjust their behavior incrementally and learn over time. This behavior is called more naïve. An extreme example for this approach is evolutionary learning which assumes a world of decision makers who possess no rationality at all but rather follow a preprogrammed strategy (like plants or simple animals).

Birth

(2012-01-12 - 2012-01-17)

Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology

In the light of a recent happy event in our department, this week’s articles feature the topics Birth and Parental Roles. This article on Birth summarizes the event from a Medical Anthropology perspective.

Image: Jonathan Fitch / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

Fatherhood and Motherhood

(2012-01-12 - 2012-01-17)

Encyclopedia of Sex and Gender

In the light of a recent happy event in our department, this week’s articles feature the topics Birth and Parental Roles. The article on Parental Roles discusses the modern and traditional ideas about motherhood and fatherhood from the socio-scientific point of view.

Image: Dynamite Imagery / FreeDigitalPhotos.net

 

Personalized Cancer Medicine

(2011-12-20 - 2012-01-14)

Encyclopedia of Cancer

Personalized medicine is defined as the application of the right treatment for the right patient, at the right dose, and at the right time. Personalized medicine is therefore a model of the way medicine will evolve through the use of specific treatments and therapies best suited to an individual’s genotype.

Photo: Editor-in-Chief Prof. Dr. Manfred Schwab

Gene Therapy

(2011-12-20 - 2012-01-14)

Encyclopedic Reference of Genomics and Proteomics in Molecular Medicine

Gene Therapy is the insertion of a functional gene into an organism for the purpose of correcting or compensating for genetic defect or combat or prevent infection. Read about pros and cons in the full article...

Ethnomathematics of the Inkas

(2012-01-10 - 2012-01-11)

Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures

This article considers the mathematics of the South American cultural group of the Quechua‐speaking Inkas. Readers will see that Inka mathematics is intimately tangled with Inka culture, as for example weaving.

Evacuation Dynamics

(2012-01-10 - 2012-01-11)

Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

Today, there are many occasions on which a large number of people gathers in a rather small area, e.g. office buildings and apartment houses grow larger and there are large events related to sports, entertainment or culture. This brings about serious safety issues for the participants and for the organizers who must be prepared for any case of emergency or critical situation...

Hereditary Hemostatic Defects and Recombinant Proteins for Treatment

(2012-01-03 - 2012-01-10)

Encyclopedic Reference of Genomics and Proteomics in Molecular Medicine

This essay covers the most frequently reported coagulation factor defects (e.g. hemophilia A and B) and the recombinant proteins for their treatment.

Snowpacks

(2011-12-27 - 2012-01-03)

Encyclopedia of Snow Ice and Glaciers

Any snowpack, whether of a seasonal or multi-year duration, will develop a layered structure  during its formation which will evolve through time.

Snow Crystal Structure

(2011-12-27 - 2012-01-03)

Encyclopedia of Snow Ice and Glaciers

Snow crystals, also called snowflakes, are single crystals of ice that grow from water vapor. They form in copious numbers in the atmosphere and are well known for their elaborate, symmetrical patterns...

Binding Problem

(2011-12-20 - 2011-12-27)

Encyclopedia of Neuroscience

Information processing in the human brain is highly parallel - for example, the color and the shape of a red square are coded by different neurons in the visual system.The binding problem deals with the question of how features that are processed in parallel are bound to the one unique percept.

Art and Climate

(2011-12-24 - 2011-12-27)

Encyclopedia of World Climatology

"Madonna and Child", by Giovanni Bellini, shows a sunlit strip of landscape in the middle and a few bright cumuliform clouds on the upper left; but then above the Madonna's head spreads an ominous dark thundercloud, a symbolic reminder of the future tragedy

Nuclear Energy

(2011-12-22 - 2011-12-24)

Environmental Geology

Fission nuclear energy is released from the splitting of a fissionable nucleus struck by a neutron. The neutron was discovered in 1932 by Chadwick and fission was discovered in 1938 by Hahn and Strassmann, while the first self-sustaining chain reaction experiment was carried out by a team led by Fermi in 1942.

Fruit Detection

(2011-12-13 - 2011-12-20)

Encyclopedia of Agrophysics

Robotic harvesting requires the detection of a fruit using an optical sensor, and then a fruit picking device can be guided along the line of sight toward the fruit. Read more in the full article about machine vision systems for fruit detection, specifically visible imaging and thermal imaging.

Oil Tanker Sludges and Slops

(2011-12-13 - 2011-12-20)

Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology

Oil transportation in the third millennium is a dangerous business causing many cases of pollution. It is a paradigm for the negative effects of globalization, as has been proven by the case of a gasoline tanker in 2006 in the port of Abidjian causing 16 deaths and more than 40,000 cases of poisoning. Read more about the case and its implications in the full article.

Autism

(2011-12-06 - 2011-12-13)

Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Autistic disorder is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by significant problems in social interaction, communication/play, and a set of unusual behaviors related to difficulties in tolerating change in the environment. The figure shows differences in visual focus of an autistic person and a comparison person in viewing a film clip of a conversation.

Astrobiology

(2011-12-06 - 2011-12-13)

Encyclopedia of Geobiology

The emerging field of astrobiology is taking a highly interdisciplinary approach to the basic question: "Are we alone in the Universe?" The image shows the Chasma Boreale region of the northern polar cap of Mars with finely layered, ice-rich sedimentary sequences that appear to reflect cyclical obliquity changes in the climate of Mars, occurring over the past few hundred thousand years. This caused the polar caps to wax and wane, affecting the habitability of the planet's surface.

Prokaryotic Genomics

(2011-11-29 - 2011-12-06)

The Prokaryotes

Sequencing of prokaryotic genomes initiated a new aera of biology and biomedical science. By deciphering the genetic code of pathogenic bacteria the whole proteome - the collectivity of all proteins in a certain cell, tissue or organism - became virtually uncovered. Understanding the Proteins and their function is the key to the development of new drugs as remedy and vaccination. Read more about the techniques, applications, future golas and the history of Prokaryotic Genomics in this extraordinary essay.

Tropical Fruit

(2011-11-29 - 2011-12-06)

Encyclopedia of Agrophysics

The tropical environment has a highly diverse nature of fruits and vegetables that have remarkable nutritional and economic importance. Read more about Banana, Cashew, Mango etc. in the full article...

Asteroid

(2011-11-22 - 2011-11-29)

Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

The risk of a serious impact is very small but it is a scientifically established fact that the Earth is at risk from impacts of asteroids. The figure shows an Artist’s impression of a kinetic-impactor spacecraft deployed to modify the orbit of a near-Earth asteroid.

Carbohydrate-Metal Complexes: Structural Chemistry of Stable Solution Species

(2011-11-15 - 2011-11-22)

Glycoscience

The technical progress of NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry enabled chemists to elucidate complex molecule structures on nanometer level. This review discusses the structural chemistry of metal complexes of carbohydrates and their derivatives with the focus on crystal structure and NMR data of stable solution species.

Mandalas

(2011-11-15 - 2011-11-22)

Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion

The Sanskrit word mandala means "circle" - circular images drawn, built, painted, danced or lived, expressing many qualities of nature and culture. Many mandalas are unnoticed images of peace, power, oneness, and transcendence.

Measuring QOL in Macular Degeneration

(2011-11-08 - 2011-11-15)

Handbook of Disease Burdens and Quality of Life Measures

The adjacent figure shows a comparison of regular vision versus the vision of a patient with mild macular degeneration. Explore in this article about Quality of Life in macular degeneration patients and the approaches to measure Quality of Life.

Desertification

(2011-11-08 - 2011-11-15)

Encyclopedia of Environmental Science

The etymology of "Desert" (from latin desertus, meaning abandoned or relinquished) in itself implies that the desert had [once] been a better place. In it, there was life - in some places teeming life. Then something happened, and the place became a wasteland; it was deserted. Read more about the process, causes and consequences of Desertification in the full article.

Moraines

(2011-10-24 - 2011-11-08)

Encyclopedia of Snow Ice and Glaciers

The term moraine covers an extremely wide range of glacial landforms, both in modern and past glacial environments. Spatially, moraines span from small, ∼1-m wide and ∼1-m high, annual moraine ridges to vast till plains or ground moraine, covering thousands of kilometers, e.g., in North America and Canada.

Video Coding Techniques

(2011-10-18 - 2011-10-25)

Encyclopedia of Multimedia

Digital video has become main stream and is being used in a wide range of applications including DVD, digital TV, HDTV, video telephony, and teleconferencing. These digital video applications are feasible because of the advances in computing and communication technologies as well as efficient video compression algorithms. The rapid deployment and adoption of these technologies was possible primarily because of standardization and the economies of scale brought about by competition and standardization. Most of the video compression standards are based on a set of principles that reduce the redundancy in digital video.

Visualizing Properties of Polymers at Interfaces

(2011-10-18 - 2011-10-25)

Soft Matter Characterization

Interfacial phenomena concern aspects like adhesion, friction, wetting, or dewetting. These phenomena can be essential for the faultless performance of various applications. Studying such phenomena with microscopy techniques has proven to be a highly successful and time-efficient way combined with an astonishing amount of information content.

Green Tea Cancer Prevention

(2011-10-18 - 2011-10-25)

Encyclopedia of Cancer

Green tea is a new strategy to prevent cancer development: The daily cancer preventive amount is 10 cups (120 ml/cup) of green tea per day (approximately 2.5 g green tea extract). It can be taken as daily consumption of green tea beverage (sencha) supplemented with tablets of green tea extract.

Indoor Localization

(2011-10-11 - 2011-10-18)

Encyclopedia of GIS

Indoor localization refers to tracking objects in an indoor environment and can be used in many applications. For example, in the Shopping Assistance system, the device can guide the shoppers through the store, provide details of items, help locate items, point out items on sale, do a comparative price analysis, and so forth.

Pancreatic Cancer

(2011-10-11 - 2011-10-18)

Encyclopedia of Cancer

Malignant carcinomas of the pancreas represent one of the most aggressive if not the most aggressive type of cancer for the human body.  The majority of patients suffer from a 5-year survival rate below 5 % and therapies remain palliative.

Biomedicine of Enkephalin-Derived Analgesics

(2011-09-27 - 2011-10-11)

Glycoscience

"Thus, drugs for the brain can be derived from the brain." is the interesting final statement of this article. Enkephalins are the endogenous peptide ligands for the opioid receptors that were discovered in the 1970s. The activation of the opioid receptors produces analgesia as well as many other effects. Learn more about Enkephalin-Derived Analgesics.

Reactive Scheduling of Batch Processes

(2011-09-27 - 2011-10-11)

Encyclopedia of Optimization

The optimization of batch process is a major goal for instance in chemical and pharmaceutical production. The purpose of reactive scheduling is to adjust a production schedule upon the occurrence of unexpected or unforeseen events using an efficient Mixed Integer Linear Problem (MILP) mathematical framework.

Comets

(2011-09-27 - 2011-10-11)

Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

Comets are among the most remarkable sky phenomena for both the layman and the scientist. For a long time, their unexpected apparitions and their unknown nature induced both fascination and fear. Nowadays, they are considered as natural laboratories meeting extreme physical conditions and as key objects for understanding the history of the Solar System.

Fanconi Anemia

(2011-09-20 - 2011-09-27)

Encyclopedia of Cancer

Fanconi anemia is a rare, inherited human disorder characterized by varying combinations of typical congenital anomalies, bone marrow failure and cancer susceptibility. Patients share a high risk for the occurrence of characteristic malignancies at relatively young age. Read about the most recent findings in this article.

Cellular Electrophysiology

(2011-09-20 - 2011-09-27)

Comprehensive Electrocardiology

The beginning of the era of cardiac electrophysiology can be attributed to the end of the nineteenth century, when Einthoven discovered the ECG. While the ECG remains an essential clinical tool and a symbol of cardiac electrophysiology, the discipline has evolved to address the function of single myocytes, or even of specific processes within myocytes.

More than the sum of its parts: Social Semantic Web

(2011-09-20 - 2011-09-27)

Handbook of Semantic Web Technologies

The Social Web has captured the attention of millions of users as well as billions of dollars in investment and acquisition. As these networks grow bigger and more diverse, more intuitive methods are needed for representing and navigating content both within and across social websites. Read this article to get an overview of the "Social Semantic Web," where semantic technologies are being leveraged to overcome the  limitations in a variety of Social Web applications.

The Netherlands

(2011-09-13 - 2011-09-20)

Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms

The low-lying coast of the Netherlands, much of it below mean sea level, is protected by dunes and dykes against the sea. After the twelfth century, people began to build embankments as protection against the invading sea. These have been progressively enlarged and augmented, and form an artificial coastline. The image shows the sea dyke at Westkapelle.

Giant Cell Arteritis

(2011-09-13 - 2011-09-20)

Rheumatology and Immunology Therapy

 

Giant Cell Arteritis is the most common type of systemic vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels) with almost exclusive incidence in people older than 50 years, predominantly affecting women. The type of inflammatory cell involved is the name giving giant cell, a form of macrophages.

Odor Biometrics

(2011-09-13 - 2011-09-20)

Encyclopedia of Biometrics

Dogs have been trained to identify objects held by a specific person for forensic purposes from the beginning of the twentieth century. Advancing technology has made it possible to identify humans based on headspace analysis of objects they have handled, opening the route to the use of odor as a biometric.

Quantum Chaos

(2011-09-06 - 2011-09-13)

Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

Quantum chaos, sometimes called Quantum chaology, studies the manifestations of chaotic motion and related dynamical phenomena in quantum mechanics. This outstanding article from Giulio Casati and Prosen gives insight to concepts of complexity theory together with the tools and measures for analyzing complex systems in all fields of science and engineering.

Hawaii

(2011-09-06 - 2011-09-13)

Encyclopedia of the World's Coastal Landforms

The south coast of Oahu, one of the eight main islands of the state of Hawaii, is characterised by intense urban development. World famous Waikiki Beach is shown here in a view taken from the summit of Diamond Head, an extinct volcano on the coast southeast of Waikiki.

Forensic Evidence of Gait

(2011-09-06 - 2011-09-13)

Encyclopedia of Biometrics

The human ability to recognize other individuals by gait is fundamental. Ceres stated already in Shakespeare's "Tempest": "High'st queen of state, Great Juno, comes; I know her by her gait". In the meantime, analyzing gait and measuring stature and segment lengths of a perpetrator from surveillance video has the possibility of becoming a valuable forensic tool...

Facial Expression Recognition

(2011-08-30 - 2011-09-06)

Encyclopedia of Biometrics

Modern human-centered user interfaces that respond readily to naturally occurring, human communication, will need the capacity to perceive and understand intentions and emotions as communicated by social and affective signals. Motivated by this vision of the future, automated analysis of nonverbal behavior, and especially of facial behavior, has attracted increasing attention.

Alzheimer's Dementia

(2011-08-23 - 2011-08-30)

Encyclopedia of Clinical Neuropsychology

Alzheimer's Disease is the most common cause of dementia in late-life. Recent studies have examined the role of insulin resistance and diabetes, diet, nutrients and nutrient supplements, omega 3 fatty acid, medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and lifestyle practices such as physical activity or social engagement.

Extreme Environments

(2011-08-23 - 2011-08-30)

Encyclopedia of Geobiology

Extreme environments differ in one or more aspects from those which humans consider as "normal," moderate conditions with circumneutral pH, temperatures between 20°C and 35°C, pressures around 0.1 MPA (1 atm), and adequate concentrations of nutrient and saline. If not completely uninhabitable they typically harbor specially adapted organisms, the so-called extremophiles...

Mars

(2011-08-13 - 2011-08-24)

Encyclopedia of Astrobiology

 

The Mars appeared to be a point of magical attraction ever since its discovery. This remarkable overview focuses on the Geology and Climatology of the “Red Planet”.

From Omnipotent to Omnipresent Maps

(2011-08-09 - 2011-08-16)

Handbook of Geomathematics

In ancient times, the unbeatable visualization capability made maps the most coveted treasures for explorers, conquerors, and missionaries. "He who wins a map wins the land" was not an overstatement. After each technical evolution, maps became less omnipotent and more easily accessible.

AFM Imaging in Physiological Environment

(2011-07-19 - 2011-07-26)

Soft Matter Characterization

The Atomic force microscope (AFM) was invented in 1985 by Binnig and coworkers. This apparatus was initially conceived as a very sensitive profilometer and operates by placing a sharp tip in such close proximity to a sample surface, so that their interaction can be measured.

Technical Application of Nuclear Fission

(2011-04-20 - 2011-05-05)

Handbook of Nuclear Chemistry

Nuclear power plants have never been more topical than after the nuclear catastrophe in Fukushima, Japan. Read in this article how mankind learned to use nuclear fission for energy generation and how nuclear reactors are assembled.

Tsunami Forecasting and Warning

(2011-04-20 - 2011-05-05)

Encyclopedia of Complexity and Systems Science

Tsunami disaster mitigation can be achieved effectively by the appropriate combination of software and hardware countermeasures. Also, improving people's awareness on the tsunami disaster, the necessity of spontaneous evacuation and how to respond to a tsunami forecast, and conducting tsunami evacuation drill are very important issues for disaster mitigation.